Conditionals use booleans to evaluate the conditions

The boolean values return true and false checking the conditional. For example:

int firstNumber = 4; int secondNumber = 4; if (firstNumber == secondNumber) { System.out.println("4 equals 4!!"); }

We could also just do this:

int firstNumber = 5; if (firstNumber == 5) { System.out.println("First equals 5!!"); }

Operators are used to compare two or more values. These values can even be variables. The operators are mostly similar to standard mathematical operators. Some new ones include '!=' which means 'not equal to', '||' which means 'or', '&&' which means 'and', and '!' which flips the boolean value (true/false).

int a = 3; int b = 8; boolean outcome; outcome = a < b; // this statement is TRUE outcome = a > b; // this statement is FALSE outcome = a <= 4; // less than or equal to 4 - TRUE outcome = b >= 10; // greater than or equal to 6 - FALSE outcome = a == b; // a equal to b - FALSE outcome = a != b; // a is not equal to b - TRUE outcome = a > b || a < b; // Logical or - TRUE outcome = 1 & a && a < 6; // Logical and - TRUE outcome = !result; // Logical not - FALSE

The if-else statement is a helpful way to write out how a function will be carried out when something is active. Let's start with the basic if statement.

if (a == b) { // a and b are equal, you will get free pizza }However, the if statement does not reach its full potential until the else statement is added, which shows what happens when the if statement is not satisfied.

if (a == b) { System.out.println("You get free pizza!"); } else { System.out.println("No free pizza!"); // this means a and b are not equal, so the else action is implemented } // this can also be written as if (a == b) System.out.println("You get free pizza!"); else System.out.println("No free pizza!");